Spermatophytes (seed plants): Angiosperms (flowering plants): Eudicots: Core Eudicots: Asterids: Lamiids: Solanales
Dig deeper at SERNEC, a consortium of southeastern herbaria.
Check out EDDMapS.org to see where this has been reported.
SYNONYMOUS WITH Floristic Synthesis of North America. BONAP (Kartesz, 2021)
SYNONYMOUS WITH Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida (Wunderlin & Hansen, 2011)
Wetland Nightshade, Aquatic Soda Apple
To see larger pictures, click or hover over the thumbnails.
Alison Fox, University of Florida, Bugwood.org bug_0002143
Leaves to 10" long and 3" wide, wavy along margins, with prickles on veins, per www.invasive.org.
Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research. Bugwood.org bug_1392079
A sprawling, semi-woody shrub tolerant of full sun and full shade, per www.invasive.org.
Alison Fox, University of Florida, Bugwood.org bug_2308004
Small white flowers occur in clusters at the leaf axils, per www.invasive.org.
Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Bugwood.org bug_5294045
The green stems are up to 15' (4.6m) long and prickly, per www.invasive.org.
Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Bugwood.org bug_5294046
Fruits are small tomato-like berries that turn bright red when ripe, per www.invasive.org.
Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS ITP, Bugwood.org bug_5376816
Floristic Synthesis of North America. BONAP (Kartesz, 2021)
Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida (Wunderlin & Hansen, 2011)
Shrub; almost vinelike
Non-native: Mexico, Central America, West Indies
CLICK HERE to see a map, notes, and images from Weakley's Flora of the Southeastern US.
Click here to see a map showing all occurrences known to SERNEC, a consortium of southeastern herbaria. (Zoom in to see more detail.)
This plant is causing problems in natural areas outside its native range, according to authorities such as:
- Alabama Invasive Plant Council, 2012
- SC Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Nuisance Species List, 2003
- SC List of Regulated Pest Plant Species, 2017
- USDA Federal Noxious Weeds, 091820
IS THE PLANT "ARMED"?
Stems, and often leaves, prickly and/or spiny
Petioles to 3cm long
5-lobed synsepalous calyx
5-parted rotate corolla
Green to Orange to Red
TO LEARN MORE about this plant, look it up in a good book!
If a search such as "Carex leptalea var. leptalea" doesn't deliver the results you want, try "Carex leptalea".
Or, to minimize chances of a misspelling, try just "Carex le".
Less is more: If "pencil flower" doesn't deliver the results you want, try "pencil".